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zoology -

BIODIVERSITY


-> Biodiversity Explanation and Biodiversity in India
-> Taxonomic systems
-> Introduction to taxa and species
-> Phenetic method or Numerical taxonomy and Cytotaxonomy and Chemotaxonomy and Palaeotaxonomy Explaination
-> Nomenclature methods and Basic principles of nomenclature and Identification keys
-> Methods of grouping animals
-> Phylum : Protozoa, Porifera and Coelenterata or Cnidaria
-> Phylum: Platyhelminthes
-> Phylum : Nematoda and Annelida
-> Phylum : Arthropoda
-> Phylum Mollusca and Phylum Echinodermata
-> Phylum Chordata and Diversity and General Characters of Chordates
-> Classification of Phylum Chordata
-> Sub phylum : Vertebrata (Craniata) and Classification of Vertebrata - Class : Pisces and Tetrapoda
-> Class : Amphibia - sub phylum Tetrapoda
-> Class : Amniota - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
-> Class : Aves - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
-> Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum - Tetrapoda
-> Monotremata, Marsupialia and Placentalia –Classification of Class : Mammalia - Reptilia - sub phylum – Tetrapoda
-> Scientific Names of Animals
-> Plasmodium
-> Life cycle in the mosquito - sporogony
-> Control of Malaria
-> Types of Malaria
-> Earthworm - External features , External apertures
-> Earthworm - Body wall ,Body Cavity,Locomotion
-> Earthworm - Digestive System, Feeding
-> Earthworm - Circulatory System
-> Earthworm - Excretory Systemk
-> Earthworm - Excretory System
-> Earthworm - Nervous System
-> Earthworm - Reproductive System
-> Pigeon - External features
-> Pigeon - The wings
-> Pigeon - Exoskeleton : Quill feather
-> Pigeon – Endoskeleton : Flight muscles, Pectoralis major, Pectoralis minor or subclavius, Coracobrachialis
-> Pigeon – Digestive system
-> Pigeon - Respiratory System
-> Pigeon - Circulatory system and Venous system
-> Nervous system and Sense organ of Pigeon
-> Pigeon - Urinogenital system and Male, Female reproductive organs

CELL BIOLOGY


-> Cell Biology
-> Microscopy and Anton van Leeuwenhoek simple microscope
-> Compound light, Dark field, Phase contrast, Oil – immersion and Electron microscope
-> Cytological Techniques
-> Plasma Membrane
-> Mitochondria
-> Ribosomes
-> Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum
-> Golgi apparatus
-> Lysosomes
-> Centrioles
-> Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
-> Chromosomes of Animal Nucleus or Human Nucleus
-> Cancer biology
-> Molecular biology of cancer
-> Types of cancer and factor causes cancer
-> Cancer and death
-> Management of cancer : Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy

HUMAN ANATOMY


-> History of Human anatomy
-> The Integumentary System - Skin and hypodermis
-> The Integumentary System - hypodermis, Epidermis, Callus, Skin color, Hair, glands, Nails
-> Human Skeletal System
-> Structure of a typical long bone
-> Skull - Human Skeletal system
-> Vertebrae - Human Skeletal system
-> Rib cage - Human Skeletal system
-> Appendicular skeleton - Pectoral girdle, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic girdle or pelvis, Wrist, Hand, Leg, Ankle, Foot, Kinds of joints, Fibrous joints, Cartilaginous joints, Synovial joints
-> Human Muscular System and Types of Muscular System
-> Skeletal muscles - Human Muscular System
-> Shapes of muscles and Naming of muscles - Human Muscular System
-> Distribution of human muscles - Muscles of the human head, Muscles of the Neck region, Muscles of the Trunk region, Muscles of the upper limb, Muscles of the lower limb
-> Human Entire Digestive system process with diagram - Mouth or Buccal cavity, Tongue, Teeth, Salivary glands, Pharynx, Stomach, Small intestine, Duodenum, Jejunum and ileum, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Caecum, Colon, Rectum, Anal canal
-> Human Respiratory system with diagram - Nasal cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs, Thoracic wall and muscles of respirations
-> The Human Circulatory System - Systemic and Pulmonary circulations - Pulmonary circulation, Systemic circulation, Portal circulation
-> Components of Human Circulatory system : Blood vessels, Types of blood vessels, The Heart
-> The Human Heart structure with diagram
-> Human Lymphatic system - Lymphoid cells and tissues, Thymus, Lymph nodes, Spleen, Tonsils, The lymphatic circulation
-> The structure of a peripheral nerve : Central nervous system (C N S) Peripheral nervous system Autonomous nervous system , brain
-> Human Brain : Prosencephalon (Fore brain), Mesencephalon (mid brain), Rhombencephalon (hind brain), Brain stem, Pachymenix, Leptomeninges
-> The Eye - Sensory Organ
-> Ears (The organs of hearing) - The Sensory Organ
-> Endocrine system and glands : Pituitary gland (or) Hypophysis, thyroid, parathy roids, pancreas, adrenals, testes and ovaries
-> Urinary system : kidneys (renes), ureters, the uri-nary bladder (vesica urinaria) and the urethra
-> Male reproductive organs
-> Female reproductive organs

GENETICS


-> GENETICS
-> Quantitive inheritance - GENETICS
-> Genetics : Sex determination in Human beings
-> Male haploidy or Haplo-diploidy mechanism
-> Genetics : Sex - linked Inheritance
-> Genetics : Pleiotropy

DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY


-> Developmental Biology - Gametogenesis, Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, Fertilization
-> Types of eggs
-> Cleavage and types - Frog’s egg
-> Gastrulation in frog embryo
-> Organogenesis of Frog

ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY


-> Corals - reef builders - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
-> Earthworm - Vermiculture
-> Uses and types of Beneficial Insects : Productive Insects - Honey bee, Silk worms, Lac insects. Helpful Insects : Insect - Predators
-> Prawns, Lobsters and Crabs - ECONOMIC ZOOLOGY
-> Pearl Oyster
-> Fishes - Nutritive value
-> Guano (Bird excreta)
-> Aquarium - Setting up an aquarium tank
-> Vivarium ( Zoo ) and List of important Zoos
-> Disease causing organisms – Vectors : Housefly - Musca domestica, Sand flies - Phlebotomus papatasi, Rat fleas - Xenopsylla cheopis, The human louse - Pediculus humanus, Mosquitoes : Anopheles, Culex, Aedes sp
-> Poisonous Organisms : Physalia, Scorpion, Centipede, Honey bees and Wasps, Poisonous fishes, Poisonous snakes
-> Poisonous snakes : Cobra, Krait, Vipers, Sea Snakes and Poison Apparatus of a Snake
-> Fouling Organisms
-> Pests - Pests of Crops : Cotton, Paddy, Sugarcane, Vegetables, Coconut palm, Stored grains, household goods

ORIGIN OF LIFE


-> ORIGIN OF LIFE - Theories
-> Geological time scale : Palaeozoic era, Mesozoic era, Cenozoic era
-> Fossils : Fossilization, Evolutionary significance of fossils, List of Important fossils
-> Extinct animals-mass extinction : Causes and Pattern of extiniction

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY


-> Nutrition : Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.), Proteins(Polypeptides), Lipids, Vitamins
-> Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.)
-> Proteins(Polypeptides)
-> Lipids
-> Vitamins : functions of vitamins and Vitamin Deficiency Ailments
-> Minerals, Water, Balanced diet, Calorie values, Obesity
-> The digestive system and The process of digestion
-> Dental Caries (Tooth decay) : Symptoms, Root Canal Treatment
-> Peptic ulcer and Hernia : Causes of Peptic ulcer and Types of Hernia
-> Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer
-> Types of fractures, Mechanism of fracture, Healing of Bones in fracture, Dislocation of joints, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation, Arthiritis , Orthopedics, Rickets and steomalacia
-> Structure of a skeletal muscle, sarcomere
-> Mechanism and Types of muscle contraction
-> Benefits of aerobic exercise
-> Myasthenia Gravis Muscle Disease
-> Process of pulmonary respiration
-> Mechanism of Human Breathing : Expiration , Inspiration
-> Gaseous exchange in the alveoli
-> Herring – Breuer reflex
-> Lungs Disease : Tuberculosis (TB), Herring – Breuer reflex, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis
-> Human Circulatory System : Functioning of Human heart
-> Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors
-> Angina pectoris
-> Angiogram : Coronary Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty
-> Atherosclerosis, Heart block, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
-> ICCU - (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)
-> Blood Pressure : Intensive of hypertension
-> Composition of plasma : Components with Functions
-> Types of blood cells or corpuscles
-> Human Nervous system
-> Human brain
-> Types of memory
-> Types of sleep
-> Human Brain Stroke and Brain haemorrhage
-> Alzheimer’s Disease, Meningitis (Brain fever), Conditioned reflex
-> Right and Left Human brain concept
-> Spinal cord functioning
-> Functions of Endocrine glands
-> Pituitary gland and The hormones of anterior pituitary
-> Thyroid gland and thyroxine
-> Human Insulin
-> Human Glucagon
-> Gonads : Testis and Overies
-> Focusing Mechanism in the Human Eye
-> Human eye : Errors of refraction
-> Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease
-> Human Eye : Cataract, Lens Replacement
-> Human Eye : Glaucoma, Nyctalopia Disorder, Infections, Symptoms, Treatment
-> EAR – Some Information
-> Mechanism of hearing - Human Ear
-> Defects of the Human ear
-> Human Hearing Aid
-> Noise pollution
-> Human Skin and Functions of skin
-> Functions of Human Skin Melanin
-> Human Skin grafting and Dermatitis
-> Human Tongue and Mechanism of Stimulation
-> Human Excretion
-> Human Excretion : tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
-> Renal Failure, Dialysis and Kidney Machines
-> Human Kidney stone (Calculus) And Kidney transplantation
-> Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention
-> Functioning of male reproductive system
-> Functioning of female reproductive system
-> Female Menstrual cycle - 28 days
-> In vitro fertilization (Test tube babies) and Birth control
-> Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy

MICROBIOLOGY


-> History of Medical microbiology
-> Structure of Viruses And Viral genetics
-> Viral Diseases
-> Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses
-> Bacterial structure And Culture
-> Bacterial Genetics
-> Bacterial Diseases
-> Protozoan microbiology
-> Larval microbiology
-> AIDS (HIV) Structure, its control, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Control and Management

IMMUNOLOGY


-> IMMUNOLOGY : Innate Immunity (Non-specific) And Acquired Immunity (Specific immunity)
-> Primary Lymphoid Organ Thymus
-> Peripheral Lymphoid Organs : Lymph nodes, Spleen
-> Secondary Lymphoid Organs : Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)
-> Antibodies - Immunoglobulins, Region of polypeptide chains, Transplantation immunology
-> Classification of grafts
-> Immune system disorders

MODERN GENETICS


-> Human Genetics - Karyotyping
-> Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
-> Genetic Diseases
-> Human Genome Project (HGP)
-> Cloning : Differentiation, Cloning of Sheep (Mechanism), Ethical Issues, Merits and Demerits of cloning
-> Transgenic organisms : Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
-> Gene therapy
-> Bioinformatics : Definition, History, Applications
-> Scope of Genetic Engineering And Bioinformatics
-> Nucleic acid, Protein sequence databases And Genome sequencing, DNA library
-> Protein Structure, Protein Model And Uses
-> Human population and explosion - Issues

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


-> Reasons for the Explosion. Impacts Of Growing Population and Environmental
-> Global warming : Green house effect
-> Types of Greenhouse Gases
-> Effects of Global warming
-> Ozone layer depletion : Ozone hole, Preventing And Effect of Ozone depletions
-> Waste management
-> Waste management : Classification of wastes
-> Management of hazardous wastes
-> Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management
-> Biodiversity conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and non Governmental organizations
-> Energy crisis and its environmental impact
-> Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis
-> Environmental impacts : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear Power, Solar energy, Fossil fuels
-> Poverty and Environmental : issues, alleviation
-> Fresh water crisis and management
-> Freshwater resources
-> Freshwater shortages
-> Freshwater Management

APPLIED BIOLOGY


-> Important cattle breeds and their characteristics
-> cattle breeds : Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds, Draught breeds
-> Milch breeds (or) Dairy Cattle breeds : Sindhi (Red Sindhi, Red Karachi), Gir (Kathiawarhi, Surti)
-> Dual purpose Cattle breeds - Ongole : Nellore
-> Draught Cattle breeds : Kangayam, Hallikar, Jersey
-> Common diseases and control for Cattle
-> Poultry Breeds
-> Poultry Farming methods
-> Factors involved in brooding
-> Pisciculture : Characters of cultivable fish
-> Fish Pond : Types and Preparation of pond, Management and Feeding
-> Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu (India)
-> Stethoscope and Uses of Stethoscope
-> Sphygmomanometer
-> Haemocytometer
-> Urine - Sugar analysis
-> ECG-Electrocardiogram
-> Computed Tomography (CT)(OR) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) - Advantages and Uses
-> Types of Endoscopy
-> Artificial Pacemaker And Autoanalyser

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION


-> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Lamarckism
-> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Neo-lamarckism
-> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Darwinism
-> Modern concept of Natural Selection (or) Modern synthetic theory of Evolution

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