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12th Standard Higher secondary Second Year

zoology -

HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY


-> Nutrition : Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.), Proteins(Polypeptides), Lipids, Vitamins
-> Carbohydrates (Poly hydroxyaldehydes (or) ketones.)
-> Proteins(Polypeptides)
-> Lipids
-> Vitamins : functions of vitamins and Vitamin Deficiency Ailments
-> Minerals, Water, Balanced diet, Calorie values, Obesity
-> The digestive system and The process of digestion
-> Dental Caries (Tooth decay) : Symptoms, Root Canal Treatment
-> Peptic ulcer and Hernia : Causes of Peptic ulcer and Types of Hernia
-> Appendicitis, Gall Stones, Hepatitis, Hernia, Peptic ulcer
-> Types of fractures, Mechanism of fracture, Healing of Bones in fracture, Dislocation of joints, Physiotherapy and rehabilitation, Arthiritis , Orthopedics, Rickets and steomalacia
-> Structure of a skeletal muscle, sarcomere
-> Mechanism and Types of muscle contraction
-> Benefits of aerobic exercise
-> Myasthenia Gravis Muscle Disease
-> Process of pulmonary respiration
-> Mechanism of Human Breathing : Expiration , Inspiration
-> Gaseous exchange in the alveoli
-> Herring – Breuer reflex
-> Lungs Disease : Tuberculosis (TB), Herring – Breuer reflex, Acute and Chronic Bronchitis
-> Human Circulatory System : Functioning of Human heart
-> Myocardial infarction : Symptoms, Causes, Risk factors
-> Angina pectoris
-> Angiogram : Coronary Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty
-> Atherosclerosis, Heart block, Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)
-> ICCU - (Intensive Coronary Care Unit)
-> Blood Pressure : Intensive of hypertension
-> Composition of plasma : Components with Functions
-> Types of blood cells or corpuscles
-> Human Nervous system
-> Human brain
-> Types of memory
-> Types of sleep
-> Human Brain Stroke and Brain haemorrhage
-> Alzheimer’s Disease, Meningitis (Brain fever), Conditioned reflex
-> Right and Left Human brain concept
-> Spinal cord functioning
-> Functions of Endocrine glands
-> Pituitary gland and The hormones of anterior pituitary
-> Thyroid gland and thyroxine
-> Human Insulin
-> Human Glucagon
-> Gonads : Testis and Overies
-> Focusing Mechanism in the Human Eye
-> Human eye : Errors of refraction
-> Retinopathy - Human Eye Disease
-> Human Eye : Cataract, Lens Replacement
-> Human Eye : Glaucoma, Nyctalopia Disorder, Infections, Symptoms, Treatment
-> EAR – Some Information
-> Mechanism of hearing - Human Ear
-> Defects of the Human ear
-> Human Hearing Aid
-> Noise pollution
-> Human Skin and Functions of skin
-> Functions of Human Skin Melanin
-> Human Skin grafting and Dermatitis
-> Human Tongue and Mechanism of Stimulation
-> Human Excretion
-> Human Excretion : tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
-> Renal Failure, Dialysis and Kidney Machines
-> Human Kidney stone (Calculus) And Kidney transplantation
-> Diabetes mellitus : Symptoms, Causes, prevention
-> Functioning of male reproductive system
-> Functioning of female reproductive system
-> Female Menstrual cycle - 28 days
-> In vitro fertilization (Test tube babies) and Birth control
-> Contraception - Methods to prevention of pregnancy

MICROBIOLOGY


-> History of Medical microbiology
-> Structure of Viruses And Viral genetics
-> Viral Diseases
-> Cultivation (culture) of Animal viruses
-> Bacterial structure And Culture
-> Bacterial Genetics
-> Bacterial Diseases
-> Protozoan microbiology
-> Larval microbiology
-> AIDS (HIV) Structure, its control, Pathogenesis, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Control and Management

IMMUNOLOGY


-> IMMUNOLOGY : Innate Immunity (Non-specific) And Acquired Immunity (Specific immunity)
-> Primary Lymphoid Organ Thymus
-> Peripheral Lymphoid Organs : Lymph nodes, Spleen
-> Secondary Lymphoid Organs : Mucosa associated lymphoid tissues (MALT)
-> Antibodies - Immunoglobulins, Region of polypeptide chains, Transplantation immunology
-> Classification of grafts
-> Immune system disorders

MODERN GENETICS


-> Human Genetics - Karyotyping
-> Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
-> Genetic Diseases
-> Human Genome Project (HGP)
-> Cloning : Differentiation, Cloning of Sheep (Mechanism), Ethical Issues, Merits and Demerits of cloning
-> Transgenic organisms : Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
-> Gene therapy
-> Bioinformatics : Definition, History, Applications
-> Scope of Genetic Engineering And Bioinformatics
-> Nucleic acid, Protein sequence databases And Genome sequencing, DNA library
-> Protein Structure, Protein Model And Uses
-> Human population and explosion - Issues

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE


-> Reasons for the Explosion. Impacts Of Growing Population and Environmental
-> Global warming : Green house effect
-> Types of Greenhouse Gases
-> Effects of Global warming
-> Ozone layer depletion : Ozone hole, Preventing And Effect of Ozone depletions
-> Waste management
-> Waste management : Classification of wastes
-> Management of hazardous wastes
-> Management of non-hazardous wastes- Solid Waste Management
-> Biodiversity conservation (Biosphere reserves) Government and non Governmental organizations
-> Energy crisis and its environmental impact
-> Steps to be taken to resolve energy crisis
-> Environmental impacts : Thermal, Hydel, Nuclear Power, Solar energy, Fossil fuels
-> Poverty and Environmental : issues, alleviation
-> Fresh water crisis and management
-> Freshwater resources
-> Freshwater shortages
-> Freshwater Management

APPLIED BIOLOGY


-> Important cattle breeds and their characteristics
-> cattle breeds : Milch breeds (or) Dairy breeds, Dual purpose breeds, Draught breeds
-> Milch breeds (or) Dairy Cattle breeds : Sindhi (Red Sindhi, Red Karachi), Gir (Kathiawarhi, Surti)
-> Dual purpose Cattle breeds - Ongole : Nellore
-> Draught Cattle breeds : Kangayam, Hallikar, Jersey
-> Common diseases and control for Cattle
-> Poultry Breeds
-> Poultry Farming methods
-> Factors involved in brooding
-> Pisciculture : Characters of cultivable fish
-> Fish Pond : Types and Preparation of pond, Management and Feeding
-> Edible Fishes Of Tamilnadu (India)
-> Stethoscope and Uses of Stethoscope
-> Sphygmomanometer
-> Haemocytometer
-> Urine - Sugar analysis
-> ECG-Electrocardiogram
-> Computed Tomography (CT)(OR) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) - Advantages and Uses
-> Types of Endoscopy
-> Artificial Pacemaker And Autoanalyser

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION


-> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Lamarckism
-> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Neo-lamarckism
-> THEORIES OF EVOLUTION : Darwinism
-> Modern concept of Natural Selection (or) Modern synthetic theory of Evolution

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