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Science Tutorial

Physics -

Nature of the Physical World and Measurement


-> Scope of Physics
-> Physics, Technology and Society
-> Forces of nature
-> Measurement
-> Derived quantities and their units
-> SI standards
-> Rules and conventions for writing SI units and their symbols
-> Expressing larger and smaller physical quantities
-> Determination of distance, mass, time
-> Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments
-> Measurement: Significant figures
-> Measurement: Rounding off
-> Classification of Errors in Measurement
-> Dimensional Analysis
-> Uses and Limitations of Dimensional Analysis

Kinematics


-> Kinematics - Rest and Motion
-> Motion in one dimension (rectilinear motion)
-> Equations of motion
-> Graphical representations - displacement, velocity,acceleration with time graph
-> Representation of a vector quantities
-> Different types of vectors
-> Addition of vectors: Triangle and Parallelogram law of vectors
-> Subtraction of vectors
-> Resolution of vectors and rectangular components
-> Multiplication of two vectors
-> Projectile motion
-> Motion of a projectile thrown horizontally
-> Motion of a projectile projected at an angle with the horizontal (oblique projection)
-> Newton's first law of motion
-> Three types of the inertia
-> Examples for Newton's first law of motion
-> Newton's second law of motion
-> Impulsive force and Impulse of a force
-> Newton's third Law of motion
-> Applications of Newton s third law of motion
-> Proof and Applications of Law of conservation of momentum
-> Concurrent forces and Coplanar forces
-> Parallelogram and Triangle law of forces
-> Experimental verification of triangle law, parallelogram law and Lami's theorem
-> Uniform circular motion
-> Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity
-> Centripetal acceleration, Centripetal force and Centripetal reaction
-> Applications of centripetal forces
-> Banking of curved roads and tracks and Condition for skidding
-> Motion in a vertical circle
-> Motion on a level circular road
-> Work : Work done by a constant force and variable force
-> Potential energy and Kinetic energy
-> Principle of work and energy (work - energy theorem) Statement
-> Conservative forces and non-conservative forces
-> Collision: Types - Elastic collision and Inelastic collision

Dynamics of Rotational Motion


-> Centre of mass
-> Centre of gravity
-> Equilibrium of bodies and types of equilibrium
-> Rotational motion of rigid bodies
-> Rotational kinetic energy and moment of inertia of a rigid body
-> Theorems of moment of inertia : Perpendicular and Parallel axes theorem
-> Moment of a force
-> Couple and moment of the couple (Torque)
-> Angular momentum of a rigid body
-> Relation between torque and angular acceleration
-> Conservation of angular momentum with Illustration

Gravitation and Space Science


-> Newton’s law of gravitation
-> Acceleration due to gravity
-> Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth
-> Variation of acceleration due to gravity
-> Gravitational field: potential difference and potential energy
-> Inertial mass and Gravitational mass
-> Escape speed derivation and with the atmosphere of a planet
-> Satellites: Orbital velocity, Time period and Energy
-> Geo–stationary satellites and Polar satellites
-> Uses of satellites
-> Indian space programme: List of Indian satellites and Indian Launch Vehicles (Rockets)
-> Weightlessness, Rockets - principle and Types of fuels
-> The Solar system
-> Kepler’s laws of planetary motion: The law of orbits, areas, periods
-> Size, Surface temperatures, Mass, Atmosphere of the planets
-> Conditions for life on any planet
-> Asteroids, Comets, Meteors and Meteorites inthe Solar system
-> Stars, Constellations, Galaxy in the Solar system
-> Milky Way galaxy
-> Origin of the Universe

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids


-> Mechanics of Solids and Fluids
-> Intermolecular or interatomic forces
-> Elasticity: Stress, strain Elastic limit, Hooke’s law
-> Experimental verification of Hooke’s law
-> Study of stress - strain relationship
-> Three moduli of elasticity
-> Relation between the three moduli of elasticity
-> Determination of Young’s modulusby Searle’s method
-> Applications of modulus of elasticity
-> Pressure due to a liquid column
-> Pascal’s law and effect of gravity
-> Applications of Pascal’s law: Hydraulic lift and brake
-> Co-efficient of viscosity
-> Viscosity: Streamline flow and Turbulent flow
-> Stoke’s law (for highly viscous liquids)
-> Determination of coefficient of viscosity of water by Poiseuille’s flow method
-> Surface tension: Intermolecular, Cohesive, Adhesive force
-> Experiments to demonstrate surface tension
-> Molecular theory of surface tension
-> Fluid Surface energy and surface tension
-> Pressure difference and pressure inside a liquid drop and a soap bubble
-> Capillarity and Illustrations of capillarity
-> Experimental determination of surface tension of water by capillary rise method
-> Factors affecting and Applications surface tension
-> Total energy of a liquid: Pressure, Kineti, Potential energy
-> Fluid Equation of continuity
-> Bernoulli’s theorem
-> Application of Bernoulli’s theorem

Oscillations


-> The projection of uniform circular motion on a diameter is SHM
-> Important terms in simple harmonic motion
-> Dynamics of harmonic oscillations
-> Angular harmonic oscillator
-> Horizontal and Vertical oscillations of spring
-> Oscillation of liquid column in a U - tube
-> Oscillations of a simple pendulum
-> Laws of pendulum
-> Kinetic and Potential in simple harmonic motion
-> Types of oscillations

Wave Motion


-> Characteristics of wave motion
-> Mechanical wave motion - Transverse and Longitudinal wave motion
-> Relationship between velocity, frequency and wavelength of a wave
-> Velocity of wave in different media
-> Laplace?s correction
-> Factors affecting velocity of sound in gases
-> Equation of a plane progressive wave
-> Characteristics of progressive wave
-> Progressive wave : Intensity and sound level
-> Applications of reflection of sound waves
-> Applications of refraction of sound
-> Superposition principle of waves
-> Interference of waves
-> Experimental demonstration of interference of sound
-> Beats - Analytical method and Uses of beats
-> Analytical method and Characteristics of stationary waves
-> Standing waves in strings - Sonometer
-> Vibrations of air column in Organ pipes
-> Resonance air column apparatus
-> Doppler effect : Different cases and Applications

Heat and Thermodynamics


-> Heat and Thermodynamics - Introduction
-> Postulates of Kinetic theory of gases
-> Pressure exerted by a gas
-> Degrees of freedom of molecule
-> Law of equipartition of energy
-> Thermal equilibrium
-> Molar specific heat capacity of a gas
-> First law of thermodynamics
-> Relation between Cp and Cv (Meyer's relation)
-> Indicator diagram (P-V diagram)
-> Isothermal process and Workdone in an isothermal expansion
-> Adiabatic process and Work done in an adiabatic expansion
-> Thermodynamic : Reversible and irreversible processes
-> Second law of thermodynamics- Kelvin's, Clausius, Kelvin - Planck's statement
-> Carnot engine - Essential parts, Working, four stages of operations
-> Refrigerator : Coefficient of performance and Inferences
-> Transfer of heat - Conduction, Convection, Radiation
-> Perfect black body
-> Experimental verification of Newton's law of cooling
-> Surface temperature of the Sun
-> Angstrom pyrheliometer

Ray Optics


-> Reflection of light
-> Image in a plane mirror
-> Reflection at curved surfaces
-> Total internal reflection
-> Applications of Total internal reflection
-> Michelson's method
-> Importance of velocity of light
-> Refraction of light
-> Refraction at a spherical surface
-> Lens maker's formula and lens formula and Magnification
-> Combination of thin lenses in contact
-> Refraction of light through a prism
-> Dispersion of light and Dispersive power
-> Spectrometer
-> Basic Parts and Adjustments of the spectrometer
-> Determination of the refractive index of the material of the prism
-> Formation of rainbows

Magnetism


-> Earth?s magnetic field and magnetic elements
-> Basic properties of magnets
-> Force between two magnetic poles
-> Magnetic induction at a point along the axial line due to a magnetic dipole (Bar magnet)
-> Magnetic induction at a point along the equatorial line of a bar magnet
-> Mapping of magnetic field due to a bar magnet
-> Torque on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field
-> Tangent law
-> End-on (or) Tan A position- Deflection magnetometer
-> Broad?side on (or) Tan B position - Deflection magnetometer
-> Magnetic properties of materials
-> Properties of diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic substances
-> Hysteresis and Hysteresis loss
-> Uses of ferromagnetic materials

Electrostatics


-> Electrostatics - frictional electricity
-> Basic properties of electric charge
-> Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
-> Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
-> Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
-> Gauss's law and its applications
-> Electrostatic induction
-> Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
-> Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

Current Electricity


-> Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
-> Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
-> Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
-> Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
-> Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
-> Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
-> Electric energy and electric power
-> Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
-> Electric cells and Voltaic cell
-> Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
-> Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

Effects of Electric Current


-> Applications of Joule heating
-> Seebeck effect
-> Neutral and Inversion temperature
-> Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (Ï€)
-> Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ)
-> Thermopile
-> Biot - Savart Law
-> Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
-> Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
-> Magnetic Lorentz force
-> Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
-> Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
-> Heating effect : Joule's law
-> Verification of Joule's law
-> Magnetic effect of current
-> Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
-> Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
-> Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
-> Ampere's Circuital Law
-> Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
-> Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
-> Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
-> Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
-> Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
-> Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
-> Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
-> Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
-> Current loop as a magnetic dipole
-> The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


-> AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
-> Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
-> Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
-> Electromagnetic induction
-> Magnetic flux
-> Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
-> Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction
-> Lenz's law
-> Self Induction
-> Coefficient of self induction
-> Self inductance of a long solenoid
-> Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
-> Methods of producing induced emf
-> AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
-> Eddy currents
-> Transformer
-> Long distance power transmission
-> Alternating current
-> AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
-> Choke coil: Construction and Working

Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics


-> Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
-> Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
-> Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
-> Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
-> Theories of light - Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
-> Scattering of light - Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
-> Wave front - Huygen's principle
-> Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
-> Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
-> Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
-> Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
-> Polarisation of transverse waves
-> Double refraction
-> Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
-> Nicol prism and Types of crystals
-> Optical activity
-> Specific rotation
-> Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
-> Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
-> Hertz experiment
-> Types of spectra
-> Theories of light
-> Scattering of light
-> Wave front
-> Superposition principle
-> Diffraction
-> Polarisation

Atomic Physics


-> Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
-> Properties of Cathode rays
-> Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
-> Thomson’s method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
-> Millikan’s oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
-> Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
-> Rutherford’s α - particle scattering experiment
-> Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
-> Bohr atom model
-> Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
-> Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
-> Shortcomings of Bohr’s theory
-> Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
-> Production of X–rays – Modern Coolidge tube
-> Types of X–rays: Soft and Hard X–rays
-> Properties of X–rays
-> Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of X–rays
-> Laue experiment
-> Bragg’s law for X-ray diffraction
-> Bragg’s X-ray spectrometer
-> X–ray spectra – continuous and characteristic X–ray spectra
-> Moseley’s law and Applications of Moseley’s law
-> Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of X–rays
-> Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
-> Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-> Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-> Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


-> Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
-> Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
-> Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
-> Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
-> Laws of photoelectric emission
-> Einstein’s photoelectric equation
-> Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
-> de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
-> Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
-> Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
-> Special theory of relativity
-> Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence

Nuclear Physics


-> Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
-> Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
-> Bainbridge mass spectrometer – Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
-> Nuclear force and Radioactivity
-> Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays
-> Radioactive displacement law
-> Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
-> Artificial radioactivity
-> Applications of radio-isotopes
-> Biological hazards of nuclear radiations
-> Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
-> Geiger – Muller counter: Construction and Operation
-> Energy released in Nuclear fission
-> Radioactive Chain reaction
-> Atom bomb - Principle and construction
-> Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
-> Nuclear power programme in India
-> Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
-> Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
-> Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


-> Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
-> Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
-> Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
-> Electrons and holes in semiconductors
-> Intrinsic semiconductor
-> Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
-> PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
-> PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
-> Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
-> Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
-> Light Emitting Diode (LED)
-> Junction transistor
-> Working of a PNP transistor
-> Transistor circuit configurations
-> Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
-> Transistor as a switch
-> Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
-> Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
-> Single stage CE amplifier
-> Multistage amplifiers
-> Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
-> Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
-> Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
-> Essentials of LC oscillator
-> Colpitt’s oscillator
-> Integrated circuit (IC)
-> Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
-> Basic logic gates using discrete components
-> Operational amplifier (OP – AMP)
-> Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
-> Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
-> Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
-> Multimeter

Communication Systems


-> Propagation of electromagnetic waves
-> Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
-> Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages
-> Phase modulation (PM)
-> Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
-> Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver
-> Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
-> Television: Scanning and synchronising
-> Monochrome picture tube
-> Monochrome TV transmission
-> Monochrome TV receiver
-> RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar
-> Analog communication and digital communication
-> Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile
-> Wire and Cable
-> Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications
-> Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits

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