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12th Standard Higher secondary Second Year

Physics -

Electrostatics


-> Electrostatics - frictional electricity
-> Basic properties of electric charge
-> Definition of Coulomb's law , Principle of Superposition, Electric Field, Electric Field Intensity (E)
-> Electric Field: Definition of Electric lines of force and Properties of lines of forces
-> Electric potential: Definition of Electric potential and Relation between electric field and potential
-> Gauss's law and its applications
-> Electrostatic induction
-> Principle of a capacitor and Energy stored in a capacitor
-> Lightning conductor -Van de Graaff Generator- working principle and construction

Current Electricity


-> Definition of Electric current and discription of Current Electricity
-> Combination of resistors: Resistors in series and parallel
-> Kirchoff's law and Potentiometer
-> Superconductivity Defination and Applications of superconductors
-> Carbon resistors and Colour code for carbon resistors
-> Temperature dependence of resistance and Internal resistance of a cell
-> Electric energy and electric power
-> Faraday's laws of electrolysis | Chemical effect of current | Verification of Faraday's laws of electrolysis
-> Electric cells and Voltaic cell
-> Primary Cell - Daniel cell, Leclanche cell
-> Secondary Cells - Lead - Acid accumulator - Applications of secondary cells

Effects of Electric Current


-> Applications of Joule heating
-> Seebeck effect
-> Neutral and Inversion temperature
-> Peltier effect and Peltier Co-efficient (π)
-> Thomson effect and Thomson coefficient (σ)
-> Thermopile
-> Biot - Savart Law
-> Tangent galvanometer : Theory and Construction of Tangent galvanometer
-> Solenoid and Right hand palm rule
-> Magnetic Lorentz force
-> Cyclotron- Principle, Construction, Working and Limitations of Cyclotron
-> Moving coil galvanometer : Principle, Construction, Pointer type moving coil galvanometer, Current sensitivity of a galvanometer
-> Heating effect : Joule's law
-> Verification of Joule's law
-> Magnetic effect of current
-> Magnetic field around a straight conductor carrying current
-> Magnetic field due to a circular loop carrying current
-> Biot Savart Law and Magnetic induction
-> Ampere's Circuital Law
-> Magnetic induction due to a long solenoid carrying current
-> Magnetic Lorentz force and Cyclotron
-> Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field
-> Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
-> Force between two long parallel current-carrying conductors
-> Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field
-> Conversion of galvanometer into an ammeter
-> Conversion of galvanometer into a voltmeter
-> Current loop as a magnetic dipole
-> The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Current


-> AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase and AC generator (Alternator) - Three phase
-> Eddy currents and Applications of Eddy current
-> Transformer Principle - Efficiency of a transformer - Energy losses in a transformer
-> Electromagnetic induction
-> Magnetic flux
-> Induced emf and current - Electromagnetic induction
-> Faraday's laws of electromagnetic induction
-> Lenz's law
-> Self Induction
-> Coefficient of self induction
-> Self inductance of a long solenoid
-> Mutual induction and Coefficient of mutual induction
-> Methods of producing induced emf
-> AC generator (Dynamo) - Single phase
-> Eddy currents
-> Transformer
-> Long distance power transmission
-> Alternating current
-> AC Circuit with resistor, inductor and capacitor
-> Choke coil: Construction and Working

Electromagnetic Waves and Wave Optics


-> Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman(C.V.Raman) Life
-> Uses of electromagnetic spectrum
-> Types of spectra - Emission spectra, Line spectrum, Band Spectrum, Absorption Spectra
-> Fraunhofer lines - Fluorescence - Phosphorescence
-> Theories of light - Corpuscular theory, Wave theory, Electromagnetic theory, Quantum theory
-> Scattering of light - Tyndal scattering, Raman effect
-> Wave front - Huygen's principle
-> Condition for sustained interference and Young's double slit experiment
-> Newton's rings : Experiment, Theory
-> Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction
-> Diffraction grating explanation with Theory
-> Polarisation of transverse waves
-> Double refraction
-> Polaroids explanation and Uses of Polaroid
-> Nicol prism and Types of crystals
-> Optical activity
-> Specific rotation
-> Electromagnetic Waves and Wave optics
-> Characteristics of electromagnetic waves
-> Hertz experiment
-> Types of spectra
-> Theories of light
-> Scattering of light
-> Wave front
-> Superposition principle
-> Diffraction
-> Polarisation

Atomic Physics


-> Discharge of electricity through gases at low pressure - Discovery of electrons
-> Properties of Cathode rays
-> Canal rays and Properties of Positive rays (or) Canal rays
-> Thomsons method - Determination of specific charge (e/m) of an electron
-> Millikans oil drop experiment - Determination of charge of an electron
-> Thomson atom model and its Drawbacks
-> Rutherfords α - particle scattering experiment
-> Rutherford atom model and its Drawbacks
-> Bohr atom model
-> Spectral series of hydrogen atom and Energy level diagram
-> Excitation and ionization potential of an atom
-> Shortcomings of Bohrs theory
-> Sommerfeld atom model and its Drawbacks
-> Production of Xrays Modern Coolidge tube
-> Types of Xrays: Soft and Hard Xrays
-> Properties of Xrays
-> Detection, Diffraction and Absorption of Xrays
-> Laue experiment
-> Braggs law for X-ray diffraction
-> Braggs X-ray spectrometer
-> Xray spectra continuous and characteristic Xray spectra
-> Moseleys law and Applications of Moseleys law
-> Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of Xrays
-> Spontaneous and stimulated emission of Laser
-> Ruby laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-> Helium neon laser - Generation Process and Energy Level
-> Medical, Industrial and Scientific Applications of laser

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter and Relativity


-> Photoelectric effect - Dual Nature of Radiation
-> Hallwachs Experiment - photo electric effect
-> Effect of potential difference on the photoelectric current
-> Effect of frequency of incident radiation on stopping potential
-> Laws of photoelectric emission
-> Einsteins photoelectric equation
-> Photoelectric cells and their types, applications
-> de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and an electron
-> Electron microscope: Construction, working, Uses, Limitations
-> Relativity: Concept of Space and Frame of reference
-> Special theory of relativity
-> Einsteins mass-energy equivalence

Nuclear Physics


-> Classification of nuclei and Properties of nucleus Nuclear size
-> Explanation of Nuclear binding energy curve
-> Bainbridge mass spectrometer Determination of isotopic masses of nuclei
-> Nuclear force and Radioactivity
-> Properties of Alpha α, beta β and gamma γ rays
-> Radioactive displacement law
-> Neutron - Discovery and Properties of neutrons
-> Artificial radioactivity
-> Applications of radio-isotopes
-> Biological hazards of nuclear radiations
-> Artificial radioactivity transmutation and Particle accelerators
-> Geiger Muller counter: Construction and Operation
-> Energy released in Nuclear fission
-> Radioactive Chain reaction
-> Atom bomb - Principle and construction
-> Nuclear reactor: Design and Function of parts, Uses
-> Nuclear power programme in India
-> Nuclear fusion: Hydrogen bomb and Stellar energy
-> Cosmic Rays: Latitude effect, Altitude effect, Cosmic ray showers
-> Elementary particles of atom - new nuclear particles

Semiconductor Devices and their Applications


-> Semiconductors: Energy band in solids
-> Semiconductors: Valence band, conduction band and forbidden energy gap
-> Insulators, semiconductors and conductors - forbidden energy gap
-> Electrons and holes in semiconductors
-> Intrinsic semiconductor
-> Extrinsic semiconductor: N and P -type semiconductor
-> PN Junction diode: Forward and Reverse bias characteristics
-> PN junction diode as Half wave and Bridge wave rectifier
-> Avalanche and zener Breakdown mechanisms
-> Zener diode and Zener diode as voltage regulator
-> Light Emitting Diode (LED)
-> Junction transistor
-> Working of a PNP transistor
-> Transistor circuit configurations
-> Characteristics of an NPN transistor in common emitter configuration
-> Transistor as a switch
-> Transistor amplifier - Operating point, Working
-> Transistor biasing - Voltage divider bias
-> Single stage CE amplifier
-> Multistage amplifiers
-> Feedback in amplifiers- Principle of feedback and
-> Transistor oscillators - Barkhausen condition for oscillation
-> Generation of sinusoidal waves by a tuned LC circuit
-> Essentials of LC oscillator
-> Colpitts oscillator
-> Integrated circuit (IC)
-> Digital electronics - Analog signal, Digital signal and logic levels
-> Basic logic gates using discrete components
-> Operational amplifier (OP AMP)
-> Circuit symbol and Pin-out configuration of an OP-AMP
-> Basic OP-AMP circuits: Inverting, Non-inverting, Summing, Difference amplifier
-> Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO)
-> Multimeter

Communication Systems


-> Propagation of electromagnetic waves
-> Amplitude modulation (AM): Modulation factor, Analysis, Advantages, Limitations
-> Frequency modulation (FM): Advantages and Disadvantages
-> Phase modulation (PM)
-> Radio transmission - AM, FM transmitter and AF, RF section
-> Radio reception: simple, AM and FM receiver
-> Television: Construction and Working of Vidicon camera tube
-> Television: Scanning and synchronising
-> Monochrome picture tube
-> Monochrome TV transmission
-> Monochrome TV receiver
-> RADAR: Principle, Applications, Transmission and reception of radar
-> Analog communication and digital communication
-> Modem and Fax (or) Facsimile
-> Wire and Cable
-> Fiber optical communication: Advantages, Applications
-> Satellite Communication: Merits and Demerits

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