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12th Standard Higher secondary Second Year

Geography -

THEORY BIOSPHERE

Plants, Animals and Humans


-> Biosphere : Plants and Animals, The Biomes
-> The forest biomes : Coniferous, Temperate, Tropical forests
-> Temperate And Tropical Grassland Biomes
-> Cold and Tropical deserts Biomes
-> Harvesting Forests and Shrinking Forests
-> Sea Ecosystems

The Human Potential


-> Human Evolution and Human Civilisations
-> Growth, Distribution and Density
-> Structure, Composition and Population Explosion
-> Malthus’ Population Theory and Marx’s Ideas on Population

HUMAN MADE ECOSYSTEMS I

Settlement Systems


-> Human-made ecosystems : settlement systems
-> Classification of Settlements
-> Urban Growth and Problems
-> Central Place Theory

Industrial Systems


-> Classification of Industrial systems
-> Industrial System : Functional Characteristics and linkage
-> Factors of Industrial Location
-> Theory of Industrial Location : Weber’s Theory of Location

Trade Systems


-> Role of Geographical Factors in Trade
-> Geographical and Stage of Technological Development
-> Geographical Trade Types
-> Geographical Trade Blocs
-> Benefits from Trade Blocs and Trade Trap and the Fall of Markets

HUMAN MADE ECOSYSTEMS II

Transport and Communication Systems


-> Human-made ecosystems : Transport and communication systems
-> Human-made ecosystems : Transport Systems and Transport Types
-> Transport Types and Classification : Road, Train, Sea, Air
-> The Cargo Traffic
-> Ecosystems : Information and Communication Systems : Technological, Technical Development
-> Importance of Information Technology
-> Communication Revolution

Space Technologies


-> Remote Sensing Systems : Types and Uses
-> Classification of Satellite Remote Sensing : Geo, Sun, Spy Satellites
-> Elements of Remote Sensing Systems
-> Uses of Remote Sensing
-> Indian Space Programme
-> Water, a Valuable Resource
-> Water: Quantity and Quality
-> Quantity of Water
-> Quality of Water
-> Water Based, Related and Waterborne Diseases
-> Water Supply and Demand and Drinking Water Scarcity

ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATIONS MANAGEMENT

Global Freshwater


-> Global freshwater : Urbanisation
-> Global fresh water : Industrialisation
-> Land and Water Pollution
-> Water Ethics and Management, Irrigation, Political Dimension
-> Water Management and Basin Management
-> Water Supply and Sanitation
-> Disaster, Hazard and Vulnerability, the Meaning
-> Resilience and Emergency

Natural Disasters


-> Disaster Management, Mitigation and Prevention
-> Earthquakes and Landslides
-> The Turkey Earthquake 1999
-> Disasters and Health Epidemic, Emergency Response to Disasters
-> Global Warming
-> Floods as Hazard and Major Flood Disasters in world
-> Flood Warning and Emergency Planning
-> Desertification
-> Advancing Deserts of the World
-> Programmes and Projects - Desertification and Drought in India

Conservation and Resource Management


-> Conservation and resource management
-> History of Conservation and Resource Management
-> History of Conservation and Resource Management In the mid-20th century
-> Water Resources Management and Conservation Techniques
-> Rainwater Harvesting and Techniques
-> Inter-State River Linkages

MAP INTERPRETATION AND SURVEYING

Map Interpretation


-> Map interpretation : Basic Map Components (Parts)
-> Map interpretation : Basic Principles of Map Reading
-> Suggested, Sequential Learning of Map Skills
-> Weather Maps and Images Interpretation
-> Map Symbols for Weather and Clouds
-> Weather Maps : Winds - Low, High
-> Weather Forecasting and its Methods

Surveying

GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

Database Management Systems and Geographical Information systems


-> What is Geographical Information System?
-> Database Management Systems - Databases
-> Applications of Geographical Information Systems

Global Positioning Systems


-> Global Positioning System (GPS) is a Satellite Navigation System
-> Carrier Phase Tracking (Surveying): An Application of GPS

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