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Botany -

BIODIVERSITY


-> Taxonomy and Phylogeny
-> Two Kingdom System of Classification
-> The Five Kingdom System of Classification
-> Viruses - Introduction And General characteristics
-> Viruses : Size, Shape And Structure of a Virus
-> Classification of virus
-> Lytic and Lysogenic Life cycle of a phage
-> Plant viral disease : Bunchy top of banana, HIV, cancer, SARS Virion
-> A new disease called SARS Virion
-> Bacteria : Introduction, Occurrence, Size
-> Classification of bacteria based on the shape and arrangement
-> Flagellation in Bacteria
-> Nutrition in Plant Bacteria
-> Respiration in Plant Bacteria
-> Reproduction of Bacteria
-> Harmful activities of Bacteria in Plants, Animal, Human beings
-> Beneficial Activities of Bacteria
-> Fungi : Salient and Distinguishing Features, Structure, Nutrition, Saprotrophs
-> Fungai : Saprotrophs and Parasites
-> Fungi Symbiosis
-> Classification of Fungi
-> Economic importance of Fungi : Useful and Harmful aspects of fungi
-> Mucor : Occurrence, Reproduction, Somatic structure
-> Algae : Salient Features, Occurrence and Distribution, Thallus organization
-> Algae : Cell Structure & Pigmentation
-> Algea : Arranagement of Flagella
-> Algea Reproduction : 1. Vegetative 2. Asexual 3. Sexual
-> Classification of Algea
-> Economic Importance of Algae - Food, Agriculture, Industry, space travel, Single cell protein, Sewage Disposal
-> Harmful effects of Algae
-> Spirogyra : Detail, Occurrence, Structure
-> Algea : Reproduction
-> Bryophytes : Salient and Distinguishing features of Bryophytes
-> Bryophytes : Alternation of Generations
-> Classification of Bryophyta
-> Riccia And The structure of mature gametophyte
-> Reproduction of Riccia
-> Riccia - Fertilization, Sporophyte Generation
-> Life cycle of Riccia
-> Pteridophytes : Salient features and Salient features
-> Characteristics of Pteridophytes and Economic importance
-> Morphology of sporophyte
-> Anatomy of Nephrolepsis
-> Reproduction of Nephrolepsis
-> Nephrolepsis : Fertilization
-> Classification and Characteristic of Spermatophytes(Gymnosperms)
-> Salient features and Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms
-> Cycas - Morphology of sporophyte
-> Anatomy of Cycas
-> Cycas - Reproduction

CELL BIOLOGY


-> A brief history about the discovery of cells
-> Dynamic nature of cell , Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal cell
-> Development of Cell Theory And Exception to cell Theory
-> prokaryotic cell And Ultra structure of a prokaryotic cell
-> Eukaryotes
-> Different Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell (Plant Cells)
-> Light Microscope and Electron Microscope (TEM - Transmission Electron Microscopy & SEM - Scanning Electron Microscope )
-> Formation of the cell wall
-> Structure of the cell wall
-> Plasmodesmata, pits and Functions of cell wall
-> Ultra structure of the cell membrane - Fluid mosaic Model, Lipids, Proteins
-> Functions of plasma membrane
-> Cell Membrane Transport
-> List of Plant Cell Organelles
-> Plant Cell Nucleus And Functions of Plant Cell Nucleus
-> Plant Cell Mitochondria - Power house of the cell
-> Plant Cell Plastids - chloroplasts, chromoplasts and leucoplasts
-> Plant Cell : Ribosomes
-> Plant Cell Division - Cell Cycle 1.Amitosis 2.Mitosis 3. Meiosis
-> Cell Division - Mitotic cell cycle : 1.Prophase 2. Metaphase 3.Anaphase 4. Telophase
-> Cell Division - Meiosis Cell Cycle : Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase

PLANT MORPHOLOGY


-> Morphology of flowering plants or Angiosperms - short notes
-> Plant - Root System : Regions of a typical root and General Characteristic features of the root
-> Types of Root System And Functions of roots
-> Root Modifications for Taproot, adventitious roots
-> Characteristic features and Functions of the stem
-> Modifications of stem : 1. Aerial modifications 2. Sub aerial modifications 3. Under ground modifications
-> Parts of a Leaf : 1. Leaf base 2. Petiole 3. Lamina
-> Leaf Venation - Reticulate, Parallel : Pinnately, Palmately
-> Leaf Modification
-> Inflorescence : Racemose, Cymose, Mixed and Special types
-> FLOWER - A Metamorphosed Shoot : Evidences to support that flower is a modified shoot
-> Description of a flower
-> Types of Placentation : Axile,Marginal, Parietal, Basal, Superficial Placentation
-> Androecium And Gynoecium
-> Plant Aestivation And Types of Aestivation
-> Corolla : Shape of the petals in the corolla and Forms of Corolla
-> Calyx : Variations and Duration of calyx
-> The receptacle (thalamus) : Variation of the Receptacle, Insertion of floral leaves on the thalamus
-> Parts of a flower
-> Fruit : Types and Structure of fruit
-> Simple fleshy fruits : baccate,drupaceous - Berry, Drupe, Hesperidium, Pepo, Pomo
-> Simple Dry Fruits - .1. Dehiscent 2. Schizocarpic 3. Indehiscent
-> aggregate and multiple or composite fruits
-> Structure and Types of Seed
-> Structure of gram seed
-> Structure of Maize Grain

GENETICS


-> GENETICS : Concept of Heredity and Variation
-> Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
-> Intermediate Inheritance (Incomplete Dominance)
-> Epistasis - Gene Interaction
-> Inheritance Laws of Mendel
-> Biography of Mendel And Mendel's Experiments on Mendel's Laws of Inheritance

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


-> Cell as a Physiological Unit
-> Properties of Protoplasm : The Physical and Chemical Nature
-> Cell - Water Relations
-> Cells : Absorption and Movement – Imbibition, Diffusion
-> Demonstration of Osmosis - Potato Osmoscope
-> Plasmolysis and Significance of Plasmolysis
-> Plant Cells : Permeability and Water Potential
-> Water Transport in Plant
-> Transpiration Pull Theory in plant water transport
-> Factors Affecting Rate of Transpiration in Plant
-> Structure of Stoma and Mechanism of Stomatal Opening and Closing
-> Factors Affecting Stomatal Movement
-> Functions of Minerals Nutrition
-> Hydroponics - Advantages and Disavantagges of Hydroponics
-> Essential Major Elements and Trace Elements for Plant
-> Plant Physiological Role and Deficiency Symptoms of Mineral Elements
-> Theories of Translocation for Plant : Passive absorption and Active Absorption
-> Plant Physiology : Translocation of Solutes
-> Plant Physiology : Nitrogen Metabolism
-> Plant Movements : Movements of locomotion and curvature
-> Geotropism
-> Phototropism And Turgor Growth Movements

REPRODUCTION BIOLOGY


-> Reproduction in Angiosperms : Vegetative Propagation
-> Natural Methods of Vegetative Propagation : Root, Stem, Leaves
-> Advantages of Vegetative propagation
-> Artificial Method of Vegetative Propagation : Cuttings, Grafting
-> Reproduction in Angiosperm : Micropropagation
-> Self Pollination - Sexual Reproduction : 1. autogamy 2. geitonogamy
-> Cross Pollination (Xenogamy, Allogamy) - Sexual Reproduction
-> Development of male and female gametophyte
-> Development of female gametophyte : Megasporophyll, Megasporangium or ovule, Megasporogenesis
-> Types of Plant Ovule
-> Plant Reproduction : Double fertilization
-> Development of dicot embryo
-> Parthenogenesis and parthenocarpy
-> Germination of Seed : Parts of Seed
-> Process of seed germination
-> Types of seed germination : Epigeal, Hypogeal germination, Vivipary
-> Factors necessary for seed gamination
-> Abscission and Importance of Abscission
-> senescence : Types, Physiology , Importance of senescence

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY


-> Organisms and their Environment
-> Organisms : Environmental Climatic Factors
-> Organisms : Environment : Edaphic Factors
-> Organisms : Environmental factors - Climatic, Edaphic, Biotic
-> Relationships among Organisms : Positive and Negative Interactions
-> Hydrophytes And Classification of Hydrophytes
-> Morphological and Anatomical adaptations of Hydrophytes
-> Xerophytes and Classification of Xerophytes
-> Morphological, Anatomical and Physiological Adaptations of Xerophytes
-> Mesophytes
-> natural resources and Types of natural resources
-> Sources of Energy resources
-> Conservation of Energy
-> Forest Resources
-> Social Forestry and Conservation of Forests
-> Conservation of Water and Types of Harvesting Rainwater

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS


-> TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
-> Biosystematics nomenclature
-> Binomial nomenclature
-> Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
-> Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
-> Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants
-> DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
-> Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
-> FABACEAE – the bean family
-> Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
-> RUBIACEAE – the coffee family
-> Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
-> ASTERACEAE – the sunflower family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
-> SOLANACEAE – the potato family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
-> EUPHORBIACEAE – the castor family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
-> MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
-> Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
-> ARECACEAE – the palm family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera

PLANT ANATOMY


-> Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
-> Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
-> Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
-> Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
-> Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
-> Epidermal tissue system and its functions
-> Vascular tissue system
-> Ground or fundamental tissue system
-> Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
-> Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
-> Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
-> Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
-> Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
-> Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
-> Secondary growth in dicot stem

CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


-> Structure of chromosome
-> Types of chromosomes
-> Special types of chromosomes
-> Gene and genome
-> Linkage and crossing over
-> Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
-> Recombination of chromosome
-> Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
-> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
-> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
-> Hereditary role of DNA – Bacterial transformation
-> Structure of DNA
-> Function and Replication of DNA
-> Structure of RNA and its types
-> Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology

BIOTECHNOLOGY


-> Recombinant DNA technology
-> Gene transfer in plants
-> How DNA is cut?
-> Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
-> Practical application of genetic transformation
-> Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
-> Concept of Plant tissue culture
-> Applications of plant tissue culture
-> Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
-> Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
-> Single cell protein (SCP)

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


-> Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
-> Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
-> Significance of photosynthesis
-> Site of photosynthesis
-> Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
-> EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong’s light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
-> Plant Mode of nutrition
-> Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
-> Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
-> Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
-> Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
-> Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
-> Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
-> Kuhne’s fermentation tube experiment
-> Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
-> auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
-> Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
-> Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
-> Photoperiodism and vernalization

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE


-> BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE : Food production
-> Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
-> Plant Breeding : Selection
-> Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
-> Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
-> Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
-> Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
-> Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
-> Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
-> Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
-> Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
-> Bio-war
-> Bio-piracy
-> Bio-patent
-> Sustained agriculture
-> Medicinal plants including microbes
-> Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
-> Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant

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