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12th Standard Higher secondary Second Year

Botany -

TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS


-> TAXONOMY OF ANGIOSPERMS : Types of classification
-> Biosystematics nomenclature
-> Binomial nomenclature
-> Herbaria and uses, Importance of Herbaria
-> Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants : Dicotyledonae, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledonae
-> Merits and Demerits of Bentham and Hooker’s classification of plants
-> DICOT FAMILIES : MALVACEAE - the cotton family
-> Botanical description of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
-> FABACEAE – the bean family
-> Botanical description and Economical of Clitoria ternatea
-> RUBIACEAE – the coffee family
-> Botanical description and Economic Importance of Ixora coccinea
-> ASTERACEAE – the sunflower family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Tridax procumbens
-> SOLANACEAE – the potato family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Datura metal
-> EUPHORBIACEAE – the castor family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Ricinus communis
-> MUSACEAE - the banana family Systematic position
-> Botanical description and Economical importance of Musa paradisiaca
-> ARECACEAE – the palm family
-> Botanical description and Economic importance of Cocos nucifera

PLANT ANATOMY


-> Classification and Characteristics of meristematic cells
-> Classification of permanent tissue : Simple and Complex tissue
-> Permanent Simple tissue Types : parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma
-> Permanent Complex tissue and Types : Xylem, Phloem
-> Phloem : Sieve elements, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres
-> Epidermal tissue system and its functions
-> Vascular tissue system
-> Ground or fundamental tissue system
-> Primary structure of monocotyledonous root - Maize root
-> Primary structure of dicotyledonous root - Bean root
-> Primary structure of monocot stem - Maize stem
-> Primary structure of dicotyledonous stem - Sunflower stem
-> Anatomy of a dicot leaf - Sunflower leaf
-> Anatomy of a monocot leaf - Grass leaf
-> Secondary growth in dicot stem

CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS


-> Structure of chromosome
-> Types of chromosomes
-> Special types of chromosomes
-> Gene and genome
-> Linkage and crossing over
-> Significance of crossing over and Uses of gene mapping
-> Recombination of chromosome
-> Gene mutation : Significance, Classification, Mutagenic agents
-> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
-> Numerical and Structural chromosomal aberrations
-> Hereditary role of DNA – Bacterial transformation
-> Structure of DNA
-> Function and Replication of DNA
-> Structure of RNA and its types
-> Characteristics of genetic code and Central dogma of molecular biology

BIOTECHNOLOGY


-> Recombinant DNA technology
-> Gene transfer in plants
-> How DNA is cut?
-> Transgenic plants : foreign gene, Transgenic (modified) plants
-> Practical application of genetic transformation
-> Use of genetically engineered bacterial strain
-> Concept of Plant tissue culture
-> Applications of plant tissue culture
-> Basic techniques of plant tissue culture
-> Protoplast fusion : Isolation of protoplast - Mechanical and Enzymatic method
-> Single cell protein (SCP)

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY


-> Enzymes : Classification, Properties of Enzymes
-> Theories explaining the mechanism of enzyme action
-> Significance of photosynthesis
-> Site of photosynthesis
-> Photochemical and biosynthetic phases, Mechanism of photosynthesis
-> EXPERIMENTS ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS : 1.Ganong’s light screen 2.Test tube and funnel experiment
-> Plant Mode of nutrition
-> Chemosynthesis - Chemosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs
-> Plant Respiration and structure of ATP
-> Plant Respiration : Glycolysis
-> Plant Respiration : Krebs cycle and Significance of Krebs cycle
-> Plant Respiration : Electron transport chain
-> Plant Respiration : Pentose phosphate pathway
-> Kuhne’s fermentation tube experiment
-> Plant growth and Measurement of plant growth
-> auxins and Physiological effects of auxin
-> Gibberellins and Physiological effects of gibberellin
-> Physiological effects of cytokinin, ethylene, abscisic acid
-> Photoperiodism and vernalization

BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE


-> BIOLOGY IN HUMAN WELFARE : Food production
-> Plant breeding : Aims, Major Aspects of plant breeding
-> Plant Breeding : Selection
-> Plant Breeding : Hybridization, Mutation breeding
-> Plant breeding : Genetic engineering
-> Role of biofertilizers and Benefits from biofertilizers
-> Plant Disease in Rice - Oryza sativa
-> Plant Tikka disease in Groundnut or peanut - Arachis hypogea
-> Citrus canker and Tungro disease of rice
-> Biopesticides and Biocontrol of insect pests
-> Genetically modified food : Edible, Edible, Edible antibodies
-> Bio-war
-> Bio-piracy
-> Bio-patent
-> Sustained agriculture
-> Medicinal plants including microbes
-> Commonly available medicinal plants and microbes
-> Economic importance Plants : Food, Rice, Oil, Fibre, Timber yielding plant

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