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Environmental Engineering - Water Treatment

Water Treatment: Selecting Technology

   Posted On :  03.07.2016 06:11 pm

When selecting technology and systems of treatment it is vital that as full a picture as possible of the source water quality is available.

Water Treatment: Selecting Technology

 

When selecting technology and systems of treatment it is vital that as full a picture as possible of the source water quality is available. It is important to know what is in the water before trying to design appropriate treatment systems. It is equally important to maintain a thorough monitoring programme through the plant to ensure that each stage of treatment is working effectively and efficiently.

 

All waters may need treatment before they are fit for human consumption, although surface waters tend to be more vulnerable to contamination than groundwater. All surface waters will require treatment prior to consumption. Furthermore, all water supplied through distribution systems should be disinfected to provide a residual disinfectant which provides ongoing protection from bacterial growth and survival.

 

Water Treatment

 

Presentation Plan

 

Section Key points OHP

 

Introduction - need to treat all surface waters and microbiological, chemical or physical microbiological contamination is most important as it

 

causes highly infectious disease with short-term impacts chemical contamination tends to have

longer term effects on health suspended solids affect microbial survival and the acceptability of

 

water, always disinfect water supplies and maint contamination during distribution and storage

 

 

Multiple Barrier Principle

 

need to have more than a single process during treatment prevents breakdown in one process leading to complete treatment failure source must be well protected

 

Treatment processes

 

many processes available, the suitability of each is a function of source quality, operator capacity and financial resources technology selection must be made on the basis of the above to ensure sustainability often need to reduce turbidity before treating water as this may interfere with treatment prefiltration is a physical process which removes suspended solids prefilters can be horizontal, vertical upflow or vertical upflow-downflow main advantage is limited working parts

and doesn't use chemicals  disadvantages include poor ability to remove fine material, microbial

 

removal poor and may need frequent cleaning sedimentation is achiev particles in slow moving water simple sedimenters do not use chemical coagulants and are

 

not effective in removing fine material

 

Section Key Points OHP

 

settling is improved through addition of co

settling and removes fine material

modular and plate settlers improve settling alum is the most common coagulant, others i

 

polyelectrolytes and ferric salts such as sulphate and

chloride

 

advantages include removal of fine particle disadvantages include expense, need for good monitoring capacity, need trained operators

 

Treatment processes

ndsafiltration can be rapid or slow

slow sand filtration is a biological proces

filtration a physical process

slow sand filters a biologically active top

 

predatory bacteria schumtzdeckekillsbacteria and viruses

require cleaning-4 days@ toeveryrecover 2 months, take 3 rapid sand filters work at much faster rate advantages of slow sand filtrationy simpleinclude

 

to operate

disadvantages include large land requiremen advantages of rapid sand filtration include

 

Treatment plant assessments

assessments of treatmentriedoutfor   plants may be car

number of different reasons

routine assessments often carried out by wa

optimised

assessments may also be undertaken when th

produce water of adequate quality

assessments involve the evaluation of each

and to identify any process failures and causes of failures

assessments should also evaluatehnologies the(e.g. suit sometimes find simple sedimenters combined with slow sand filters when turbidity

was relatively high - led to failure)

assessments should be linked to performance

 

Section Key Points OHP Conclusion

 

both surfacewatermay requireand treatmentgroundbeforedistribution

source water quality (and likely variations technologies should be used which reflect

 

adequate treatment

multiplea barrier principle should always be used when treating water

source protection is also vital

 

The Multiple Barrier Principle of Water

Treatment

 

Upflow-Downflow Prefilter

 

Horizontal Flow Prefilter

 

Flocculator

 

Coagulant Dosing

Slow Sand Filter

 

Rapid Sand Filter

Water Treatment Plant Assessments

 

When and why the should be carried out:

Routine assessment of operational efficiency and state of equipment

 

When contamination is found When disease outbreaks occur

 

If disinfection dosing requirements suddenly change

 

Water Treatment Plant Assessments Parameters

 

Raw Water:

 

turbidity, pH, alkalinity, coliforms, major ions, nutrients, known problem substances

 

Coagulation-flocculation-settling: turbidity, pH, residual aluminum, residual acrylamide, coliforms

 

Prefiltration: turbidity, pH, coliforms

 

Sand filtration (rapid/slow): turbidity, pH, coliforms

 

Disinfection:

 

Residual (usually chlorine), pH, turbidity, coli forms (thermotolerant and total)


Tags : Environmental Engineering - Water Treatment
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