Civil - Highway Engineering - Highway Planning and Alignment
1. Define central road fund?
On the recommendation of Jayakar Committee, a Central Road Fund came into existence on 1st march 1929, Upon the authority of a resolution adopted by the Indian legislature.
2. Define National Highway Act 1956?
In 1956, National Highway act was passed declaring the National Highways and empowering the central Govt. to declare any other highway to be NH. This act came into force with effect from 15th April 1957.
3. Explain CRRI?
CRRI- The central Road Research Institute Delhi in 1950 It is an organ of the council of scientific and industrial research, and in function include.
4. Write Short notes on Highway Research Board?
This board was set up by I.R.C in 1973 to give proper direction and guidance to road research work in India.
5. What are classified roads in Nagpur plan?
1. National Highways (NH)
2. State Highways (SH)
3. District Roads:
(1)Major district Roads
(2)Other district Roads
4. Village roads.
6. Define Express ways?
These roads are of higher, day than National highway. There are Such roads on which only font moving vehicles like car and jeeps are classified.
7. What are the modified classifications of Road system by Third RDP (1981-2001)?
1. Primary System
2. Secondary System
3. Tertiary system
8. What are types of Road patterns?
1. Rectangular (or) Black pattern.
2. Radial (or) Star and black pattern.
9. Write short notes or Nagpur plan (or) its 20-year Road plan.
The first attempt for proper Scientific planning of roads in India, Wan made in chief Engineers conference held at Nagpur in 1943. Nagpur conference finalized at 20 years (1943-1963) road development plan.
10. Write short notes on Second twenty year road plan (1961-81)
A Second road development programmer (1961-81) was finalized by the chief engineers connected with road development, both at centre and Staten in a meeting held at Hyde Chad in 1959.
11. What are the fundamental principles of alignment?
1. Length of road should be shortest
2. The Proposed road should form a most economical line.
3. The alignment should provide corny.
12. What are the function which control the selection of alignment?
1. Volume and type of traffic
2. Obligatory points
3. Canal river (or) railway crossings
4. Geotechnical standard to he adopted
13. Define obligatory point?
Obligatory points are such points which act to control points in highway alignment.
14. What are special considerations for him road alignment?
3. Geometric standard
4. Deep writing and heavy fillings should he avoided.
15. What are the various types of engineering surveys?
1. Map shady
2. Reconnaissance survey
3. Preliminary survey
4. Detailed Survey
16. What are two type of road project?
1. A new highway Project
2. Re-alignment (or) revenging Highway project
17. What are head involved in Highway Geometric?
1. Cross Section eleventh like camber, Super elevation
2. Sight distance character sight like stopping sight distance, overtaking sight distance etc.
3. Horizontal and vertical alignments
18. Define camber?
Traverse slope given to the road surface in called camber. It is provided mainly to drain off rain water from the road surface.
19. What are the factors deepens on camber?
1. Account of Surface
2. Type ground surface
20. What camber recommended in WBM Road?
Water Bound Macadam road 1 to 33 (3%) 1 in 40 (2.5%).
21. What camber recommended in bihiminour road?
Bihiminour surface 1 in 40 (2.5%) 1 in 50 (2%)
22. What camber recommended in cement concrete Road?
Cement concrete Road 1 in 50 (2%) 1 in 60 (1.7%)
23. What are the different types of camber?
1. Parabolic camber
2. Sloped camber
3. Composite camber
24. Define carriage way width?
Metal led puce strip of road meant for vehicular traffic movement in called carriage
25. Define dual carriageways?
Each portion of the carriageway is reserved for traffic moving in opposite direction. Such carriage ways are called dual carriageways.
26. What are the width of carriage way in meteor two lane without raised wert state highways?
State highways 7.0 m
27. Write note on high speed barrier herb?
This herb is 23cm to 45cm to height. This herb is mainly used at initial location such as bridge and hill roads.
28. Define formation width?
Formation width is also called road way. It is the sum of width of carriage way shoulders, and separations it provided
29. Define Right of way:-
Area to the acquired along the road alignment in called right of way.
30.What are the important modifications made in Macadams method with respect to the other methods?
Following are the important modifications made in Macadams method.
i) Realizing the importance of subgrade drainage and compaction, the subgrades were prepared with sufficient cross slope.
ii) Heavy foundation stones were replaced with broken stones and with adequate drainage arrangements.
iii) The total thickness is comparatively less and the order of 25 cm.
iv) The size of broken stones used for the layer was based on the stability under animal drawn vehicles.
31. What are the objectives of Central Road Fund?
As per the recommendation of Jayakar Committee, a Central Road Fund was
created in 1st march 1929. The Consumers of petrol were then charged an extra levy of 2.64 paisa per liter (i.e., two annas per gallon). Twenty percent of the revenue collected through the fund was retained as Central Reserve and the balance allotted to the various states based on the actual petrol consumptions.
32. State the principles of highway financing.
Highway financing is concerned with the sources and distribution of the money that is obtained for highway purposes. Thus the basic principle in highway financing is that the money spent on the construction and maintenance must be recovered from the roads users.
33. Mention the functions of medians in urban roads.
Separators or medians are provided to prevent the head on collision between two vehicles moving in opposite directions in the adjacent lanes. These medians may be in the form of pavement markings, physical dividers or area separators. Out of these three pavement making is the respect.