Super-elevation or cant or banking is the transverse slope provided at horizontal curve to counteract the centrifugal force, by raising the outer edge of the pavement with respect to the inner edge, throughout the length of the horizontal curve.
Analysis of Super-elevation
Super-elevation or cant or banking is the transverse slope provided at horizontal curve to counteract the centrifugal force, by raising the outer edge of the pavement with respect to the inner edge, throughout the length of the horizontal curve. When the outer edge is raised, a component of the curve weight will be complimented in counteracting the effect of centrifugal force. In order to find out how much this raising should be, the following analysis may be done. The forces acting on a vehicle while taking a horizontal curve with superelevation is shown in figure
Forces acting on a vehicle on horizontal curve of radius R m at a speed of v m=sec2 are:
Analysis of super-elevation P the centrifugal force acting horizontally out-wards through the center of gravity, W the weight of the vehicle acting down-wards through the center of gravity, and F the friction force between the wheels and the pavement, along the surface inward. At equilibrium, by resolving the forces parallel to the surface of the pavement we get,
P cos = W sin? + FA+ FB
= W sin? + f (RA+ RB)
= W sin? + f (W cos? + P sin?)
where W is the weight of the vehicle, P is the centrifugal force, f is the coefficient of friction, is the transverse slope due to super elevation. Dividing by W cos?, we get:
By substituting the value of P/W this in equation
Design of super-elevation
While designing the various elements of the road like superelevation, we design it for a particular vehicle called design vehicle which has some standard weight and dimensions. But in the actual case, the road has to cater for mixed traffic. Different vehicles with different dimensions and varying speeds ply on the road. For example, in the case of a heavily loaded truck with high centre of gravity and low speed, superelevation should be less; otherwise chances of toppling are more. Taking into practical considerations of all such situations, IRC has given some guidelines about the maximum and minimum superelevation etc.
For fast moving vehicles, providing higher superelevation without considering coefficient of friction is safe, i.e. centrifugal force is fully counteracted by the weight of the vehicle or superelevation. For slow moving vehicles, providing lower superelevation considering coefficient of friction is safe, i.e. centrifugal force is counteracted by superelevation and coefficient of friction. IRC suggests following.