Home | ENGINEERING | Francis Turbine

civil - Applied Hydraulic Engineering: Turbines

Francis Turbine

   Posted On :  13.07.2016 06:09 pm
Francis Turbine

The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, MA. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts.

Francis Turbine

 

The Francis turbine is a type of water turbine that was developed by James B. Francis in Lowell, MA. It is an inward-flow reaction turbine that combines radial and axial flow concepts.

 

Francis turbines are the most common water turbine in use today. They operate in a head range of ten meters to several hundred meters and are primarily used for electrical power production.

 

. The inlet is spiral shaped. Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the turbine wheel, known as a runner. This radial flow acts on the runner's vanes, causing the runner to spi n. The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be adjustable to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions.

 

As the water moves through the runner, its spinning radius decreases, further acting on the runner. For an analogy, imagine swinging a ball on a string around in a circle; if the string is pulled short, the ball spins faster due to the conservation of angular momentum. This property, in addition to the water's pressure, helps Francis and other inward-flow turbines harness water energy efficiently. Water wheels have been used historically to power mills of all types, but they are inefficient.

 

Nineteenth-century efficiency improvements of water turbines allowed them to compete with steam engines (wherever water was available).

In  1826  Benoit  Fourneyron  developed   a  high         efficiency    (80%)          outward-flow water turbine.  Water  was  directed  tangentially          through       the  turbine runner,          causing  it  to spin. Jean - Victor Poncelet designed an inward-flow turbine in about 1820 that used the same principles. S. In 1848 James B. Francis, while working as head engineer of the Locks and Canals company  in    the  water-powered  factory  city  of  Lowell,          Massachusetts,  improved on  these designs to create a turbine with 90% efficiency. He applied scientific principles and testing methods to produce a very efficient turbine design. More importantly, his mathematical

and graphical calculation methods improved turbine design and engineering. His analytical methods allowed confident design of high efficiency turbines to exactly match a site's flow conditions.

 

The Francis turbine is a reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine, giving up its energy. A casement is needed to contain the water flow. The turbine is located between the high-pressure water source and the low-pressure water exit, usually at the base of a dam.

 

The inlet is spiral shaped. Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the turbine wheel, known as a runner. This radial flow acts on the runner's vanes, causing the runner to spin. The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be adjustable to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions.

 

As the water moves through the runner, its spinning radius decreases, further acting on the runner. For an analogy, imagine swinging a ball on a string around in a circle; if the string is pulled short, the ball spins faster due to the conservation of angular momentum. This property, in addition to the water's pressure, helps Francis and other inward-flow turbines harness water energy efficiently.

 

 




Tags : civil - Applied Hydraulic Engineering: Turbines
Last 30 days 60 views
Related words :

What is Francis Turbine Define Francis Turbine Definition of Francis Turbine where how meaning of Francis Turbine lecturing notes for Francis Turbine lecture notes question and answer for Francis Turbine answer Francis Turbine study material Francis Turbine assignment Francis Turbine reference description of Francis Turbine explanation of Francis Turbine brief detail of Francis Turbine easy explanation solution Francis Turbine wiki Francis Turbine wikipedia how why is who were when is when did where did Francis Turbine list of Francis Turbine school assignment college assignment Francis Turbine college notes school notes kids with diagram or figure or image difference between Francis Turbine www.readorrefer.in - Read Or Refer

​TOP MENU

OTHER SUGEST TOPIC