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Civil - Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS - EMR and Its Interaction With Atmosphere and Earth Material

Energy Interactions With The Atmosphere

   Posted On :  09.08.2016 08:03 pm
Energy Interactions With The Atmosphere

Particles and gases in the atmosphere can affect the incoming light and radiation. These effects are caused by the mechanisms of scattering and absorption .

ENERGY INTERACTIONS WITH THE ATMOSPHERE

 

Before radiation used for remote sensing reaches the Earth's surface it has to travel through some distance of the Earth's atmosphere. Particles and gases in the atmosphere can affect the incoming light and radiation. These effects are caused by the mechanisms of scattering and absorption .


 1 SCATTERING    

Scattering  occurs when   particles or   large gas molecules  present  in  the  atmosphere  interact  with  and  cause  the electromagnetic radiation to be redirected from its original path.  How  much scattering takes  place  depends on  several  factors  including  the  wavelength  of the radiation, the abundance of  particles or gases, and the distance the radiation travels through the atmosphere. There are three (3) types of scattering which take place.

 

 

 2 RAYLEIGH SCATTERING

 

Rayleigh scattering occurs when particles are very small compared to the wavelength of the radiation. These could bearticles such as small specks of dust or nitrogen and oxygen molecules. Rayleigh scattering causes shorter wavelengths of energy to be scattered much more than longer wavelengths. Rayleigh scattering is the dominant scattering mechanism in the upper atmosphere.The fact that the sky appears "blue" during the day is because of this phenomenon. As sunlight passes through the atmosphere, the shorter wavelengths (i.e. blue) of the visible spectrum are scattered more than the other (longer) visible wavelengths. At sunrise and sunset the light has to travel farther through the atmosphere than at midday and the scattering of the shorter wavelengths is more complete; this leaves a greater proportion of the longer wavelengths to penetrate the atmosphere.


 3ABSORPTION

 

Absorption is the other main mechanism at work when electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere. In contrast to scattering, this phenomenon causes molecules in the atmosphere to absorb energy at various wavelengths. Ozone, carbon dioxide, and water vapor are the three main atmospheric constituents which absorb radiation. Ozone serves to absorb the harmful (to most living things) ultraviolet radiation for the sun. Without this protective layer in the atmosphere our skin would burn when exposed to sunlight. Carbon dioxide referred to as a greenhouse gas. This is because it tends to absorb radiation strongly in the far infrared portion of the spectrum - that area associated with thermal heating - which serves to trap this heat inside the atmosphere. Water vapour in the atmosphere absorbs much of the incoming longwave infrared and shortwave microwave radiation (between 22?m and 1m). The presence of water vapour in the lower atmosphere varies greatly from location to location and at different times of the year. For example, the air mass above a desert would have very little water vapour to absorb energy, while the tropics would have high concentrations of water vapour (i.e. high humidity).

 

 

 4 MIE SCATTERING

 

Mie scattering occurs when the particles are just about the same size as the wavelength of the radiation. Dust, pollen, smoke and water vapour are common causes of Mie scattering which tends to affect longer wavelengths than those affected by Rayleigh scattering. Mie scattering occurs mostly in the lower portions of the atmosphere where larger particles are more abundant, and dominates when cloud conditions are overcast.

 

The final scattering mechanism of importance is called nonselective scattering. This occurs when the particles are much larger than the wavelength of the radiation.

 

Water droplets and large dust particles can cause this type of scattering. Nonselective scattering gets its name from the fact that all wavelengths are scattered about equally. This type of scattering causes fog and clouds to appear white to our eyes because blue, green, and red light are all scattered in approximately equal quantities (blue+green+red light = white light).


Tags : Civil - Remote Sensing Techniques and GIS - EMR and Its Interaction With Atmosphere and Earth Material
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