"Disaster management" means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for prevention of danger or threat of any disaster, mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences, capacity-building, preparedness to deal with any disaster, prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster, assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster, evacuation, rescue and relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Disaster Management Information System (DMIS)
o To overcome limitation of existing system.
o Effective utilizations of natural resources database in event of disaster.
o Building decision support system for better district administration
o Providing vital information related to pre-disaster and post-disaster at fingertips. o Facilitating users for easy data integration.
o Editing, updating of spatial and non-spatial data at ease. o To assist in post disaster damage assessment analysis.
o Provide centralized system that would be time & cost effective and maintenance free. o Development of user friendly customized DMIS software.
"Disaster management" means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for prevention of danger or threat of any disaster, mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences, capacity-building, preparedness to deal with any disaster, prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster, assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster, evacuation, rescue and relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction. Disaster Management comprises all forms of activities including structural and nonstructural measures to avoid (i.e. prevention) or to limit (i.e. mitigation and preparedness) adverse effects of disasters in the pre-disaster phase and post disaster stage like Response, Relief, Recovery, & Reconstruction.
As per the directives laid under GOI-UNDP program, the Government of Maharashtra (GOM) has a Disaster Management Unit (DMU), which prepares action plan to support and strengthen the efforts of district administration for overall disaster vigilance of the State. In view of preparedness, each district has evolved its own district disaster management action plan (DDMAP). It is anticipated that these multi-hazard response plans would increase the effectiveness of administrative intervention.
The DDMAP addresses the districts‘ response to disaster situations such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, epidemics, off-site industrial disasters, roads accidents and fires. Some of these disasters such as floods and earthquakes affect widespread area causing extensive damage to life, property and environment while disaster like epidemics only affect populations. Anyhow, the management of these disasters requires far-reaching resources and manpower for containment by remedial action.
As a part of said project, Government of Maharashtra (GOM) entrusted the development of Disaster Management Information System (DMIS) to Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre (MRSAC) at the initiative of Relief and Rehabilitation Department. The project thrusts on requirements of the user department viz., Relief & Rehabilitation Department and District Administrations in Maharashtra State.
GIS is a powerful technology that can assist decision-making in all phases of the disaster management cycle. GIS tools are used for integrating the geographic (i.e. location) and the associated attribute data pertaining to the location and its spatial relationship with numerous other parameters, to carry out effective spatial planning, minimize the possible damage, ensure immediate action when required and prioritize actions for long-term risk reduction.
Resources database on various themes obtained through Remote Sensing data has been compiled for all the districts of Maharashtra. Similarly attribute data on Demography & Census, government core sectors, and past disaster have been integrated in the DMIS. Spatial and non-spatial database has been generated in GIS environment. A customized system has been developed for each district for prioritizing hazards for use in developing Mitigation Strategies, Risk Estimation and Hazard and Vulnerability Mapping.
A user-friendly menu driven software has been developed in Arc GIS using Arc Objects with Visual Basic 6.0. It has been designed and customized keeping in mind the skill level of the expected users at the district level. The methodology and database has been customized for easy implementation.
High resolution satellite data for the study area are analyzed for generation of base map as well as DEM. Slopes (or Contours) generated from DEM is used for locating shelter camps in event of disaster.
The themes like Slope, Landuse, and Geology are amalgamated so as to calculate weighted ranks that indicate vulnerability index. For example, Slope (0-1%) + Landuse (River, Reservoir, Double Cropped) + Geology (water body mask, deep alluvial plain) = Rank 1. This index will decide the sensitivity of the flood prone area i.e. very high-risk area, high-risk area, moderate risk area, low risk area and no risk area.
The software has been thoroughly tested before its packaging and deployment. Each district user is authenticated for accessing data in DMIS software.
Standard DMIS software has been developed using prototyping model of Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The final software has been installed and implemented in Relief and Rehabilitation Cell at Mantralaya, Mumbai, Maharashtra State.
The DMIS is installed and implemented in all districts of Maharashtra State followed by demonstration to District Collector and training to concerned officials. The User Guide Manuals are provided to users for further guidance and operating software at ease. Detail requirement analysis of the user had been done with respect to the standard procedures followed during disaster and effort is taken to incorporate the same in the software.
2 Project Deliverables
Following Deliverables were handed over to 15 Collectorate Offices as mentioned in table below and Relief & Rehabilitation Cell at Mantralaya, Mumbai.
Natural Resources Database at 1:50,000 scale in GIS format.
DMIS customized software
Data Requirement Sheet
Relief and Rehabilitation Cell, Revenue and Forest Dept, Mantralaya, Mumbai.
Planning Department, Mantralaya, Mumbai.
Secretaries of various departments
All District Collectorate (or Disaster Management Units)