Based on the performance of existing designs and using analytical approach, simple design charts and a catalogue of pavement designs are added in the code.
Design procedure of IRC for flexible pavement
Based on the performance of existing designs and using analytical approach, simple design charts and a catalogue of pavement designs are added in the code. The pavement designs are given for subgrade CBR values ranging from 2% to 10% and design traffic ranging from 1 msa to 150 msa for an average annual pavement temperature of 35 C. The later thicknesses obtained from the analysis have been slightly modified to adapt the designs to stage construction. Using the following simple input parameters, appropriate designs could be chosen for the given traffic and soil strength:
Design traffic in terms of cumulative number of standard axles; and CBR value of
The method considers traffic in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles (8160 kg) to be carried by the pavement during the design life. This requires the following information:
· Initial trafficin terms of CVPD
· Traffic growth rate during the design life
· Design life in number of years
· Vehicle damage factor (VDF)
Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriage way.
Initial traffic is determined in terms of commercial vehicles per day (CVPD). For the structural design of the pavement only commercial vehicles are considered assuming laden weight of three tonnes or more and their axle loading will be considered. Estimate of the initial daily average traffic flow for any road should normally be based on 7-day 24-hour classified traffic counts (ADT). In case of new roads, traffic estimates can be made on the basis of potential land use and traffic on existing routes in the area.
Traffic growth rate
traffic growth rates can be estimated (i) by studying the past trends of traffic growth, and (ii) by establishing econometric models. If adequate data is not available, it is recommended that an average annual growth rate of 7.5 percent may be adopted.
For the purpose of the pavement design, the design life is defined in terms of the cumulative number of standard axles that can be carried before strengthening of the pavement is necessary. It is recommended that pavements for arterial roads like NH, SH should be designed for a life of 15 years, EH and urban roads for 20 years and other categories of roads for 10 to 15 years.
Vehicle Damage Factor
The vehicle damage factor (VDF) is a multiplier for converting the number of commercial vehicles of different axle loads and axle configurations to the number of standard axle-load repetitions. It is defined as equivalent number of standard axles per commercial vehicle. The VDF varies with the axle configuration, axle loading, terrain, type of road, and from region to region. The axle load equivalency factors are used to convert different axle load repetitions into equivalent standard axle load repetitions. For these equivalency factors refer IRC:37 2001. The exact VDF values are arrived after extensive field surveys.
A realistic assessment of distribution of commercial traffic by direction and by lane is necessary as it directly affects the total equivalent standard axle load application used in the design. Until reliable data is available, the following distribution may be assumed.
Single lane roads: Traffic tends to be more channelized on single roads than two lane roads and to allow for this concentration of wheel load repetitions, the design should be based on total number of commercial vehicles in both directions.
Two-lane single carriageway roads: The design should be based on 75 % of the commercial vehicles in both directions.
Four-lane single carriageway roads: The design should be based on 40 % of the total number of commercial vehicles in both directions.
Dual carriageway roads: For the design of dual two-lane carriageway roads should be based on 75 % of the number of commercial vehicles in each direction. For dual three-lane carriageway and dual four-lane carriageway the distribution factor will be 60 % and 45 % respectively.
Design the pavement for construction of a new bypass with the following data:
1. Two lane carriage way
2. Initial traffic in the year of completion of construction = 400 CVPD (sum of both directions)
3. Traffic growth rate = 7.5 %
4. Design life = 15 years
Vehicle damage factor based on axle load survey = 2.5 standard axle per commercial vehicle
6. Design CBR of subgrade soil = 4%.
= 7:2 msa
4. Total pavement thickness for CBR 4% and traffic 7.2 msa from IRC:37 2001 chart1 = 660 mm
5. Pavement composition can be obtained by interpolation from Pavement Design Catalogue (IRC:37 2001).
(a) Bituminous surfacing = 25 mm SDBC + 70 mm DBM
(b) Road-base = 250 mm WBM
(c) sub-base = 315 mm granular material of CBR not less than 30 %
Design the pavement for construction of a new two lane carriageway for design life 15 years using IRC method. The initial traffic in the year of completion in each direction is 150 CVPD and growth rate is 5%. Vehicle damage factor based on axle load survey = 2.5 std axle per commercial vehicle. Design CBR of subgrade soil=4%.
1. Distribution factor = 0.75
2. 4:4 msa
3. Total pavement thickness for CBR 4% and traffic 4.4 msa from IRC:37 2001 chart1 = 580 mm
4. Pavement composition can be obtained by interpolation from Pavement Design Catalogue (IRC:37 2001).
a. Bituminous surfacing = 20 mm PC + 50 mm BM
b. Road-base = 250 mm Granular base
i. sub-base = 280 mm granular material.